Pediatric Ophthalmology And Strabismus
This department is related to problems occurring commonly in children like:
- Pediatric strabismus or squint
- Amblyopia or lazy eye
- Congenital Cataract
- Congenital Glaucoma
- Congenital Lacrimal Drainage Block
- Retinopathy of Prematurity
Strabismus is misdirection of the eyes so that both eyes are looking in different directions. This may be present throughout the day or occur sometimes during the day.
Types include : Esotropia (Inward Misdirection), Exotropia (Outward), or Hyper/ Hypotropia (UP or Downward).
Causes of squint
- The exact cause is unknown. A loss of coordination between the muscles of the two eyes leads to squint.
- Sometimes a refractive error Hypermetropia (long sight) may lead to inward deviation of the eye.
- Poor vision in an eye due to some other eye disease like cataract, etc. may also cause squint.
- Therefore it is important in all the cases of squint, especially in children, to have a thorough eye checkup to rule out any other cause of loss of vision.
Vision problems in Squint
- Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is the most common cause of visual impairment in Squint. It may be caused by squint or refractive error. It is most commonly treated with occlusion therapy, achieved through either patching.
- Double vision,
- Eye strain and Headache
Treatment for squint
Glasses : First, the eyes are checked to see there is any refractive error that may cause squint. If there is any refractive error present, it is treated first with glasses which itself may correct the squint. Secondly, wearing glasses help the eyes to see clearly which is very important for the treatment of Amblyopia, and also for maintaining the coordination of eyes after surgery.
Patching : Next the eyes are checked for Amblyopia. It is important to treat the Amblyopia before the surgery for squint by Patching/ Occlusion therapy.
Surgery : The squint is treated by surgery of either one or both the eyes. The surgery involves weakening or strengthening the relevant muscles to restore the balance and good coordination between both eyes
Esotropia Corrected with Glasses
Esotropia with Glasses after Surgery
Esotropia corrected with surgery
Occlusion therapy for Amblyopia
Other Childhood Problems
Congenital cataract : Which requires timely cataract surgery to restore vision and prevent blindness due to dense Amblyopia
Congenital nasolacrimal duct blockage (or NLD blockage) leading to watering of eyes. This should be treated to prevent repeated infection with discharge and matting of eyes.
Retinopathy of Prematurity is a condition of the retina which happens when a baby is born prematurely (less than 36 weeks of gestation).